Widespread protests erupted across the country after the House of Representatives passed the bill on Oct. 5.Some protests, however, have been marred by violent clashes between protesters and security forces.Meanwhile, civil society organizations have slammed the police for using “excessive force” in managing the demonstrations as pictures of police assaulting protesters and journalists circulated on social media.The Commission for Missing Persons and Victims of Violence (Kontras) said it had received at least 1,500 reports on alleged police violence from Oct. 6 to 8 during the planned national strike against the new law, organized primarily by labor unions. (trn) The police also deployed 200 Brimob officers to West Java.Awi added that a joint force of 9,332 policemen, soldiers and Public Order Agency (Satpol PP) officers had been deployed in the capital on Tuesday to enforce security.Read also: ‘We are not yet defeated’: Students condemn govt’s dismissal of jobs law protestsWhile Tuesday’s protest in Jakarta involved several religious groups, the country’s second largest Islamic organization, Muhammadiyah, reasserted that it would not take part in any demonstrations. Instead, it would “focus on handling the COVID-19 outbreak and its impact on education, the economy and public health”, Muhammadiyah secretary Abdul Mu’ti said on Monday, as quoted by tribunnews.com. The National Police on Monday deployed around 7,500 Mobile Brigade (Brimob) officers to ensure public safety and security in Jakarta amid continuing protests against the newly passed Job Creation Law, or omnibus law.Several groups, including the hard-line Islam Defenders Front (FPI) and the 212 Alumni Brotherhood (PA 212), went ahead with their planned demonstrations on Tuesday in Jakarta to demand that the government revoke the omnibus law.“The first deployment of [Brimob officers] arrived in Jakarta on Oct. 5, while the second arrived on Oct. 12. At least 7,500 officers are deployed here,” National Police spokesperson Brig. Gen. Awi Setiyono said on Monday as quoted by kompas.com. Topics :
One in five borrowers are opting for fixed-rate home loansWe may be crucifying them in the State of Origin, but in the less dramatic competition around fixed rate home loans, the maroons are running a close second to the blues.Home loan approvals data compiled by mortgage broker Mortgage Choice reveals 23.3 per cent of all Queensland loans written in February were for a fixed interest rate.More from newsMould, age, not enough to stop 17 bidders fighting for this home2 hours agoBuyers ‘crazy’ not to take govt freebies, says 28-yr-old investor8 hours agoAcross the country, fixed rate demand was highest in New South Wales, where they accounted for 24.2 per cent of all home loans written in the month.Mortgage Choice said the ration has translated across borders with one in five loans around Australia now being fixed rate.Mortgage Choice chief executive officer, John Flavell, said the results are significant.“Of course, given that so many lenders have raised their interest rates over the past few weeks, I am not surprised to see one in five borrowers opting for a fixed rate home loan.”Mr Flavell said the trend to fixed rates should continue after the Reserve Bank of Australia’s governor, Philip Lowe, said future rate cuts were unlikely.“As more lenders start to lift their rates, we may see more borrowers choosing to fix their mortgage in a bid to avoid further rate hikes and provide themselves with some certainty around their regular mortgage repayments,” Mr Flavell said.
Port-related engine replacements can generate significant emission reductions, according to the U.S. EPA.Replacing older-generation diesel-powered equipment in operation at the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor could reap major benefits for the state.Just one tugboat engine replacement could reduce NOx emissions by more than 96,000 lbs.Recent research confirms that replacing the older, larger engines in marine workboats offers one of the most cost-effective strategies for reducing NOx emissions in ports. Engines that power heavy duty vehicles and equipment are the largest source of NOx emissions in Indiana, according to the latest NOx emissions inventory.The most important opportunity for NOx mitigation in Indiana is replacing heavy-duty engines or the vehicles and equipment they power with new technology. While Indiana does have the highest rate of adoption of the latest clean diesel trucks, just under half of Indiana’s trucks do not use these technologies and are eligible for funding.A new heavy-duty truck powered by a clean diesel engine certified to the model year 2010 EPA emissions standard on the road for one year can reduce emissions of NOx by 2.3 tons relative to a truck manufactured to meet the previous emissions standard.It takes more than 50 model year 2017 clean diesel trucks to generate the same level of NOx emissions as a single truck manufactured in 1988. Indianapolis, In. — The Indiana Department of Environmental Management is holding public meetings about what to do with an estimated $41 million VW settlement. The funds are designated to support activities and technologies that reduce carbon emissions.Indiana has already demonstrated proficiency in the use of clean diesel technology:Indiana boasts the highest number of clean diesel heavy-duty trucks in the United States – 51 percent of the state’s fleet has adopted the newest generation of clean diesel trucks, more than the national average.Indiana ranks second out of the 50 states for the number of clean diesel engines manufactured – nearly 160,000 in 2016.Clean diesel technology also powers 27 percent of the state’s transit buses and 35 percent of the state’s school buses.And, nearly 9,300 Hoosiers work in diesel-related jobs.Other options include clean diesel upgrades and replacing heavy-duty diesel engines:Clean diesel upgrades and replacements will provide more clean air benefits for the dollar and provide those faster than other approaches.The U.S. Department of Transportation, using the latest emissions model generated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, found that 1 ton of NOx emissions may be eliminated by investing, on average, $20,000 in clean diesel technology versus, on average, $1 million in electric infrastructure.The Clean Air Task Force concluded that greater NOx reduction can occur by replacing older transit buses with new clean diesel models as opposed to investments in natural gas equipment.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that investments in clean diesel technology are a more cost-effective strategy to immediately reduce NOx emissions from older port trucks than emerging alternatives such as battery electric commercial trucks. Here is a list of statewide meetings:February 13, 2018Time: 6:00 PM CSTLocation: CK Newsome Community Center, 100 Walnut Street #1, Evansville, IN 47713February 21, 2018Time: 6:30 PM ESTLocation: Allen County Public Library Aboite Branch, 5630 Coventry Lane, Fort Wayne, IN 46804February 26, 2018Time: 6:00 PM ESTLocation: Jackson County Public Library Seymour Branch, 303 West Second Street, Seymour, IN 47274
15 Jan 2013 England’s Georgia is Team GB flag bearer at youth Olympics England Golf’s Georgia Hall was today named as Team GB’s flag bearer for the Opening Ceremony of the 2013 Australian Youth Olympic Festival (AYOF), which starts tomorrow in Sydney. Georgia, 16, is the European women’s number one, is ranked fourth in the world and is the British girls’ champion. She is based at Remedy Oak Golf Club in Dorset. She said: “This is a huge honour. I am thrilled to have been selected to carry the flag for Team GB at the Opening Ceremony of the Australian Youth Olympic Festival. “I am really looking forward to the Opening Ceremony, it will be my first taste of what the Olympics could be like and I can’t believe there will be thousands of people in the crowd when I lead Team GB out!” The golf team includes six England players. They are Jack Singh-Brar (Brokenhurst Manor), Gabriella Cowley (Brocket Hall), Harry Ellis (Meon Valley), Georgia Hall (Remedy Oak), Amber Ratcliffe (Royal Cromer) and Ashton Turner (Kenwick Park). The line-up is completed by Bradley Neil, Ewan Scott and Lauren Whyte of Scotland and by Chloe Williams of Wales. Georgia was unveiled as the Team GB Flag Bearer in front of her teammates by Chef de Mission, Mark England during a team reception hosted by the British Consulate General at his residence in Sydney. Georgia was presented with the Union Flag by double Olympian Team GB canoeist Jessica Walker who was Team GB’s Flag Bearer at the last AYOF in 2009 and is currently training in Sydney. The 2013 AYOF sees Georgia, alongside her nine teammates, compete for Team GB in golf for the first time since the 1900 Olympic Games when British golfers won silver and bronze medals. In 2009 it was announced that golf was being re-introduced to the Olympic Programme for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. Team GB will be represented by 120 athletes, aged 12-20, across 11 sports over five days of AYOF competition. The first sports in action are hockey and badminton on Wednesday morning, followed by the Opening Ceremony which takes place at 18:30 local time (07:00 UK time) at the Sydney Entertainment Centre. The Opening Ceremony will incorporate many elements of a tradition Olympic Opening Ceremony, including the parade of the 1,700 participating athletes from 30 countries, the taking of the athletes’ and officials’ oaths, the raising of the Olympic Flag, and the lighting of the Festival Flame as well as musical and performance entertainment from local artists. Team GB Chef de Mission, Mark England said: “Congratulations to Georgia Hall on being awarded the honour of leading Team GB as our Flag Bearer at the Opening Ceremony of the 2013 AYOF. “At just sixteen years old Georgia is ranked number one in Europe and fourth in the World Amateur Women’s rankings, which is a remarkable achievement and she represents an outstanding choice as Team GB Flag Bearer. Georgia should be very proud of this special achievement. “The AYOF marks the first time in over 100 years that Team GB will include athletes from the sport of golf and I’m sure that the AYOF will play an important role in introducing these young athletes to an environment reminiscent of the Olympic Games and providing them with vital experience of a multi-sport competition.” Georgia added: “It is a real honour to be one of the very first golfers to represent Team GB for a very long time. When golf got added to the sport programme for the Rio 2016 Games, I was really excited as it has always been my dream to compete at an Olympics. “I’m looking forward to competing to the best of my ability here in Australia, as well as learning about the Olympic environment and making many new friends with teammates from other sports and competitors from other countries.”
BILL NEAL :10 Tim Stevens… Leonard Johnson…The Legendary Kenny Blake… and, and, and Sandy Greene—Pittsburgh’s No. 1 Female Vocalist and you didn’t come because it was raining for 20 minutes. Now that’s messed up! And it tells me how old you’ re getting. Rain didn’t stop you when you were young. And it didn’t stop the “100” real jazz lovers that filled up the 3 Lakes Banquet Room. So that you know Tim Stevens hasn’t lost a thing. He’s still “The Ultimate Showman.” And surprise guest vocalist Greg Lovelace put the “icing on the cake” with a duet with Sandy Greene…yep, you missed all that!!! Many thanks to Art Hawk, Meagan and Suzie’s staff and crew for all your help and support and a great summer run!:09 Now does everybody know who Sandy Greene is?:08 Can someone please tell me why the basketball court at Penn Hebron School (off Frankstown Road, across from McDonalds) has a fantastic surface…eight great hoops …and no nets…never, never, never ever has any nets!!! Could it be because of “Section 8”? I am just sayin!:07 A big attaboy to my man James Hurt. He’s about to be promoted to the top level position at UPMC, the first concierge in his department’s history. (For you East Hills folks a concierge is the HMIC, “Head Man In Charge.”) I changed it so nobody’s toes got stepped on. If you don’t know ask somebody over 40 they’ll tell you what it could have said.:06 You need an expert to explain this Original Dream Team vs This Olympic Team debate. I can’t get “Hawk” on the phone, Kevin Cameron …well you know, that Aliquippa problem and we all know Mike Booker doesn’t know as much about basketball as he pretends he does. So you got me. HHHEEERRRREEE We Go! Why the Dream Team wins.No. 1. The Dream Team of 1992 beats the 2012 team “8” out of “10” games. Of the two they win, one is at the buzzer, by the hands of Kobe (you know LeBron won’t shoot it…Neal will you let it go…oh, my bad again! But man them Refs!) The other is a win by ten because the law of average allows it.No. 2. The sheer greatness that is Michael Jordan sets the tone. He’s only the second greatest player of all time. (Wilt Chamberlain…I keep telling ya.)No. 3. Why do you think they called him Magic? C’mon man!No. 4. Bird, Pippen, Robinson…12 rings among them!No. 5. Ewing, Robinson, Laettner…total inside dominance! Laettner with “The Duke Effect.”No. 6. Barkley…unless you got a baseball bat and a gun you can’t stop him.No. 7. Stockton…all time assist leader, duh!No. 8. Magic, Bird, Jordan, Pippen, Ewing, Barkley, Robinson, Drexler, Malone…all part of the 50 greatest of all time. Hey, Drexler’s nickname is “Clyde the “Glide” people!No. 9. Ewing and Barkley still mad cause they didn’t win NBA rings.No. 10. Here’s your match ups and who wins. (Cause I said so) Magic vs. LeBron —Magic; Jordan vs. Kobe—Jordan; Bird vs. Durrant—Durrant (Bird’s bad back); Ewing vs. Chandler—Ewing; Robinson vs. Inquodala—Who?; Barkley vs. Carmelo—Come on ya’ll!; Stockton vs. Paul—Paul; Laettner vs. Davis—Call it even; Drexler vs. Harden—Drexler; Malone vs. Love—Malone (2nd All Time Leading Scorer); Pippen vs. Westbrook—Pippen; Mullen vs. Williams—Williams. Now either shut-up or call me either one. I’m easy to get 412-628-4856!:05 Movie Review Time: “Savages” gets bumped up to 3 basketballs. I went back to see it again it got better the second time. “The Dark Knight Rises” …well no it didn’t. It kinda rised up 1/2 way (rised up…huh!) Anyway it was too long and slow. You can be one or the other but not both. Thanks to Anne Hathaway in the cat woman suit the Batman gets 2-1/2 basketballs. Oh, shut up. You know you went to see it!:04 It’s Steelers Time… proud of you Pirates and keep up the good work. But it’s Steelers time and yes I am ready for some damn football!!!:03 Speaking of movies, and I was. How many times can a person watch “Tombstone?” Well apparently 25 times cause I just did. It never gets old…and yes “I’ll be your Huckleberry”!:02 Mark your calendar for the No. 1 Reggae Band in the ’Burgh and the last summer blast at a location to be announced is coming at ya Aug. 25 starring The Flow Band. You know they never disappoint…and you also know… “They Shot The Sheriff …But They Did Not Shoot The Deputy! (Call 412-628-4856 for information).:01 Don’t worry, I got your Penn State stuff right here. It’s coming…And I am with Franco!!!:00 Double Overtime: Michael Phelps…Just say no!!!~ Game Over ~
ARCADIA, Calif. (Jan. 24, 2015)–With a powerful late rush at the rail, Go West Marie easily overhauled longshot Home Journey to take Saturday’s $150,000 Sunshine Millions Filly and Mare Turf Sprint by three quarters of a length under Gary Stevens. Trained by Eddie Truman, the 4-year-old California-bred filly by Western Fame covered 6 ½ furlongs down Santa Anita’s hillside turf course in 1:12.18.Off at 5-1 in a field of 12 California-bred or sired fillies and mares, Go West Marie shortened up off of an impressive one mile turf allowance score on Dec. 28. She paid $13.00, $7.20 and $5.00.“A great trip,” said Stevens. “Eddie’s done a great job with this filly and I got on her at the right time. I learned a lot about her. I asked him if I could just sit on her and be quiet with her. It worked out well. She exploded with me the last eighth, and I rode her the same way today even though we were shortening up and there was so much speed. The key with a filly like this is they’re professional–let them settle and they’re going to finish for you.”Owned by Peter Redekop B.C., Ltd., Go West Marie ran her overall record to 17-5-1-5. Out of the Swiss Yodeler mare Marie’s Rose, she picked up $90,000 for the win, which improved her earnings to $402,520.“This race wasn’t really our choice,” said Truman. “We think she’s better going long but we wanted a Cal-bred race. Her last race was in open company and this was really our only option for Cal-breds. Gary said he would ride her the same way, just sit on her dead last…She has run down the hill and been on the lead, so really, she’ll do anything. She is just so sweet. She’s maturing and getting so much smarter and kinder.”In a massive effort, Home Journey, who was ridden by Tyler Baze, set fast fractions of 21.20, 42.80 and 1:05.88, held second by a half length over a fast finishing More Complexity. Off at 16-1, Home Journey paid $16.60 and $9.80.Ridden by Mario Gutierrez, More Complexity, along with Marks Mine, were both returned to the saddling paddock during the post parade, resulting in a lengthy delay. Off at 14-1, More Complexity was keen early while mid-pack past the half mile, had dead aim on the leader turning for home but was third-best. She paid $8.60 to show.The favorite at 2-1 with Victor Espinoza up, Heat Trap never threatened and finished sixth.
Some of the enmity … A’s reliever Liam Hendriks has a message for the dear departed Warriors: Don’t let door hit you in the fanny pack on the way out of town.The Warriors will set up shop in San Francisco’s Chase Center in October after 47 years in Oracle Arena.Hendriks is thrilled. He’s not a big fan, and says he’s not alone in that sentiment.“I don’t follow the Warriors,” Hendriks told The Athletic. “They treated us like (expletive) over here. So we don’t care for them much.”
Supporters of the national football teamwearing their customary headgear madefrom plastic hardhats at a match betweenBafana Bafana and Equatorial Guinea in2008.(Image: Chris Kirchhoff, MediaClubSouth Africa. For more free photos, visitthe image library.)Janine ErasmusThe Fifa World Cup is fast approaching, and 26 January 2009 marks the milestone of just 500 days until the greatest sporting spectacle in the world unfolds for the first time on African soil between 11 June and 11 July 2010.Since the announcement in 2004 by Fifa president Sepp Blatter that the World Cup would finally come to Africa, the country has been in a frenzy of planning, building, renovating, constructing and training.All sectors of industry and society are doing their bit to ensure that next year’s football world cup will be an event talked about for years to come by the estimated 26-billion cumulative global audience. An estimated three-billion viewers will watch the opening game alone.However, among citizens the day has passed quietly and uneventfully. Even Zakumi, the green-haired leopard and official mascot of the World Cup, has kept a low profile. According to the Local Organising Committee (LOC), the upcoming Confederations Cup is the most immediate priority.LOC spokesperson Richard Mkhondo said, “We would begin earnestly to actually promote the World Cup when the Confederations Cup is finished.”The most significant event of the day is expected to be the unveiling in Bloemfontein of the nine official 2010 Fifa host city posters. The launch will signal a more aggressive public marketing approach for the long-anticipated event.Growing excitementNot long ago the pessimists doubted the country’s ability to successfully host such a huge global sporting event, but recently a slowly growing confidence and excitement is becoming more evident. And of course, Fifa has backed South Africa from the outset, and continues to do so.“Africa has given the world of football so many, many talented and outstanding players, coaches, clubs and national teams,” commented Blatter, “and therefore it was justice that one day that they would host the World Cup in Africa. Now it is Africa’s time. I am very happy that in 500 days the World Cup will kick-off in South Africa. It will be a historic moment.”Construction of stadiums continues at a satisfactory pace, says the LOC. The 2009 Confederations Cup, regarded as a dress rehearsal for the big event, takes place in June 2009 and work on the four venues in the host cities of Johannesburg, Pretoria, Rustenburg and Bloemfontein is drawing steadily closer to completion.The four stadiums will be ready for the Confederations Cup, says the LOC, and construction on the remaining six venues for the World Cup is due for completion at the end of 2009. Most are around 60% to 70% complete, so the halfway mark has long been passed.The South African government had made billions available for infrastructure upgrade. R136-billion alone has been set aside for improvements to electricity networks in the nine host cities, while another R31-billion rand has been allocated for other preparations.A surge in tourist numbersSouth Africa is expecting tourist numbers to surge and according to Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Marthinus van Schalkwyk, speaking at the launch of National Tourism Month in September 2008, the goal of having 10-million international visitors visiting the country by 2010 is well within reach. In fact, he added, it may even happen in 2009.The global financial crunch is not expected to have any negative impact on tourist numbers, as South Africa remains an affordable destination in any currency.The sentiment was echoed by Blatter, who commented, “Naturally, we might not have the same return of investment as we had at the last World Cup in 2006, but the world was a different place then. For Fifa, it’s not important to get money out of Africa, but it’s important to us that the Africans enjoy organising their own World Cup – and they will do.”Service industries in the country, such as transport, hospitality, catering and tourism, are expected to reap massive benefits, as are the many entrepreneurs who have seized the chance to become a part of the action.A number of host cities, including Johannesburg and Cape Town, are upgrading their public transport facilities and will boast state of the art bus and train rapid transport systems by the time 2010 rolls around. Major airports around the country are undergoing extensive upgrades and the new King Shaka international airport at la Mercy, north of Durban, will open in time to welcome visitors to the province.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Email Janine Erasmus on firstname.lastname@example.org.Related articles:Colourful vuvuzelas – from kelpConfed Cup matches finalised Cape Town’s new bus system Useful links:FifaSouth African Football Association South Africa 2010 Confederations Cup
21 August 2014President Jacob Zuma has called on the ministers, premiers and mayors on the Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission (PICC) to work together urgently and creatively to speed up delivery of the country’s infrastructure build.Chairing the first sitting of the PICC under the new administration in Pretoria on Tuesday, Zuma said the commission had been established “to ensure that the delivery of infrastructure does not suffer as departments or spheres of government protect turf, or due to mindless rules and long delays.“The PICC is action-oriented, flexible and focused,” he said. “It must address matters with speed, partnership, and a problem-solving culture. It must attend to regulatory matters if necessary, so that we make decisions and ensure actual delivery.”A high-level government team of ministers, premiers and metro mayors that was first set up in 2012, the commission is chaired by the President himself.The PICC monitors more than 150 infrastructure projects in rail, road, ports, dams, irrigation systems, sanitation and electricity.Zuma said the commission was was beginning to make solid progress in improving infrastructure spending across all three spheres of government, but said there were concerns over limited construction activity.He said the commission was now coming down hard on projects that were not brought to conclusion. “Now we are making sure that dams are opened, that new schools are occupied by learners and that railway carriages are manufactured.“But we recognise that much more needs to be done to generate more energy, develop better logistics and transport systems, ensure that water and sanitation reaches communities, and expand information and communication technologies, including broadband, to strengthen the 21st century economy.“And of course, investment in health, education and rural infrastructure are all critical to the welfare and productivity of our people,” Zuma said.Source: SAnews.gov.za
UPDATED 8/16/2011Asphalt shingles are the roofing of choice for a majority of U.S. homes. And each year, in the process of manufacturing, installing and eventually replacing them, the construction industry produces an estimated 11 million tons of shingle waste.That’s roughly the capacity of a quarter-million fully laden tractor-trailers, which when lined up end to end would stretch from New York to Los Angeles.Most of the waste now goes to landfills. But unlike processed gypsum drywall, which often goes begging for markets, recycled asphalt shingles have inherent value because of their high petroleum content.William Turley, executive director of the Construction Materials Recycling Association, a trade group, estimates that one-third of the waste is currently recycled, and he expects that to continue rising.That’s good news. As recently as 2007, a consultant to the CMRA reported asphalt shingling recycling was “rarely practiced in some states.” It’s still hampered by health and regulatory issues, but there’s a good reason for Turley’s optimism. RELATED ARTICLES Roadblocks for wider recyclingTwo things stand in the way of higher recycling rates: health concerns related to their asbestos content, and a lack of uniform state standards allowing them to be used in hot-mix asphalt for public road projects.Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral with a number of excellent working characteristics. Unfortunately, it’s also a known human carcinogen. Asbestos bound up in roofing shingles or other roofing products isn’t a threat — unless it’s released as dust when shingles are ground during reprocessing. And that makes state health officials nervous.It has been years since manufacturers used asbestos in roofing shingles. But it’s common practice to apply new shingles over old, so a contractor tearing off three layers or shingles might well run into some that contain asbestos. In addition, asbestos is still used in some roofing products, such as roof cements and mastics (the CMRA report notes that more than half of the 3,500 tons of asbestos imported into the U.S. in 2007 went into roofing products).Some shingles manufactured into the late 1970s contained significant amounts of asbestos — some as much as 50% — so the threat that contaminated shingles will find their way into the waste stream is there.In reality, asbestos turns up in an extremely low number of shingle samples. Massachusetts requires shingle recyclers to test each batch not once but twice. Any shingles that are found to contain asbestos must be landfilled, where the asbestos is safely sequestered.Sean Anestis, who owns a shingle recycling company called Roof Top Recycling Inc. in Boxborough, Mass., tests every load that comes through his gates but says he “rarely finds” any containing asbestos. He handles up to 30,000 tons of shingles per year. In testing 40 samples per day, Anestis gets two or three hits a year. “You have a better chance of getting hit by a car on your way home from work than being exposed to asbestos,” he says.In fact, one study available through the CMRA found asbestos showed up in only about 1.5% of more than 27,000 samples.Another potential health threat are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or PAHs) shingles contain by virtue of their petroleum content. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified seven PAHs that are “probable human carcinogens,” according to the report written for the CMRA, while separate studies have linked an increased risk of certain cancers among roofers and asphalt workers because of their exposure.Although there’s a potential for these compounds to get into the environment via shingle recycling, no conclusive studies seem to be available. Potential uses for processed shinglesAsphalt shingles, which account for two-thirds of the U.S. residential roofing market, are made from a fiberglass or organic backing, asphalt cement, a sand-like aggregate and mineral fillers such as limestone dolomite and silica. These are the basic ingredients of hot-mix asphalt used in road construction, which helps explain why the paving industry is the No. 1 end user of reprocessed shingles.There are a variety of other potential uses, too:Cold patch for repairing potholes. The CMRA report notes that ground-up shingles mixed with aggregate and an emulsion can be used for patching roads. In fact, the mix actually improves performance because of the fiberglass or cellulose content of the shingles.Aggregate in road construction. Ground and screened shingles can be mixed with gravel and used to cover unpaved roads, minimizing dust, reducing vehicle noise and longer road life. Combined with ground asphalt and concrete, ground shingles also make a good road base for driveways (for a closer look at how one Connecticut business handles shingles for this use, check this video ).Manufacturing new shingles. Some shingle manufacturers have tried using factory scraps to make new shingles, with mixed success.Energy recovery. Shingles have an energy content of as much as 20,000 Btu per pound, the report says, and the practice of using scrap as a fuel supplement is “an established market” in Europe. Air emission regulations in the U.S. appear to be one impediment for a wider use of scrap shingles as fuel, but Turley says he knows of some cement manufacturers that use old shingles as fuel.Although all of these end uses are possible, the patchwork of state regulations and the lack of any reliable national reporting system makes it impossible to say where any or all of them are actually put in practice. GBA Encyclopedia: Job-Site RecyclingGBA Encyclopedia: Roofing MaterialsAsphalt Shingle Recycling LocatorJob-Site Recycling: Gypsum WallboardJob-Site Recycling: PVCSaving Energy by RecyclingCarpet RecyclingVideo: Grinding Drywall and Wood“Shingle recycling has grown tremendously in the past 10 years,” he says. “The reason is that it’s very profitable. Shingles contain bitumen, the binding agent in asphalt pavement. It’s oil — and oil is a little expensive right now.”However, as is the case with other forms of C&D waste, shingle recycling is a hit-or-miss proposition that varies from state to state, goes up and down with changing market conditions, and is not systematically tracked by any private or government agency. For a state-by-state list of shingle recyclers, check the map at the CMRA web site. Trying to make a buckOne of the chief incentives for making more of an effort to recycle construction debris is a better bottom line. Landfill tipping fees can be steep (this, too, varies by state), and culling out waste that can be recycled can pay dividends for builders.Anestis, for example, charges between $60 and $80 per ton for roofers and disposal contractors to drop off asphalt shingles. That’s a good savings over the $70 to $120 he says landfills around the state charge.But the economics of recycling can be complicated. In Massachusetts, Anestis has to pay to dispose of the shingles he processes because he doesn’t grind them himself. His operating margin is the difference between what he charges to take in shingles and what he pays to get rid of them.In another state, he said, a processor might have a better market for ground shingles, allowing the processor to charge builders lower tipping fees.In other words, shingle recycling in one state might bear no resemblance to recycling in another. Road asphalt, state-by-stateIf the best-known use for recycled roof shingles is in hot-mix asphalt, there’s no national standard regulating the practice in the U.S. Some states have adopted specifications for using old shingles in road asphalt, but others haven’t. And without this state “spec,” highway officials won’t permit ground up shingles to be used in new asphalt. Even where it is permitted, some states limit it to non-public uses, such as driveways and retail parking lots, rather than state highways.The practice is spotty. California, for example, has no state spec, says Turley. In Illinois, the state highway department hasn’t developed one, while the Illinois Tollway authority has.A national map developed by CMRA shows roughly half the states in the country permit the practice in one form or another. The rest, including many Western states, don’t.Overall, about 1 million tons of reclaimed asphalt shingles went into new hot-mix last year, according to the National Asphalt Paving Association. That’s less than 10% of the total waste stream, but still a big jump over previous years.Where it can be used, the upward limit of old shingles to hot-mix asphalt seems to be relatively small, 5%. At that level, it may actually improve the properties of the mix; beyond that, pavement gets too brittle.A fact sheet distributed by the Northeast Recycling Council says that using hot-mix asphalt with a 5% recycled shingle content can shave as much as $2.80 per ton off the cost of hot mix while improving the quality of the paving. With that in mind, wider adoption of state standards on using reclaimed shingles would not only mean more business for recyclers but also has the potential to lower highway construction and repair costs for taxpayers.There also are potential problems with the practice. One North Carolina paving company I spoke with said it has stopped using shingles in its hot-mix for at least two reasons. First, the shingle manufacturer they had been getting virgin scrap from for free began charging for it. Second, bits of fiberglass from ground shingles would stick up in the road when mixed with fresh asphalt. Ground shingles also can be dusty, and if they sat in the weather too long they degraded. In all, the company found it more advantageous to scrape off the top layer of asphalt on existing roads and use that to supplement new asphalt rather than use old shingles.But, says NAPA engineer Dave Newcomb, paving companies have a powerful incentive to use more reclaimed shingles because the practice allows them to replace as much as 20% of the asphalt cement they buy, a major savings.Newcomb says grinding shingles to a fairly fine consistency, to 3/8 in. or less, eliminates the chunky texture of asphalt. The real problem with grinding up shingles is that the process involves a “fair amount of work” and is more successful in urban areas than rural areas because of economies of scale.