Dinosaur Evolutionary Tree Is All Wrong

first_img(Visited 747 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Oops… The dinosaur evolutionary tree is all wrong!by Dr. Jerry BergmanA new study has revolutionized the dinosaur evolutionary tree, producing “the biggest change to dinosaur tree in 130 years” (New Scientist. March 25, 2017, p. 9). The old theory classified dinosaurs into two significantly distinct dinosaur families, those with bird-like hips that point downwards and towards the tail, called the ornithischians, and those with lizard-like hips that point downwards and to the front, called the saurischians. The new theory was based both on newer dinosaur findings that were not available earlier and a newer analysis of dinosaur traits. Instead of focusing on the pelvic bone, as in the old system, Baron and his team analyzed 457 characteristics in 74 species (Baron et al. 2017. A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution. Nature 453(7646):501-506; K. Padian. 2017 Dividing the Dinosaurs. Nature. 543(7646):494).These findings forced development of a new dinosaur family tree.They found that the 21 anatomical features they selected can be used to divide the dinosaurs very differently than the older system. As there is no correct way of selecting traits used to classify, selection of other traits could be used to divide dinosaurs into an even different evolutionary tree. Based on these features, the new tree puts T. rex and other theropods on the side of the “bird-hipped” creatures, and the sauropods with those related to Herrerasaurus, a South American bipedal carnivore. These findings forced development of a new dinosaur family tree. This revolution is not unusual in evolutionary biology, and illustrates the tenuousness of classifying life, a field termed taxonomy. Using one set of traits one can produce one taxonomy, and using another different set can produce a very different taxonomy. Thus, taxonomy classifications are somewhat tenuous.The taxon Dinosauria was named in 1842 by paleontologist Sir Richard Owen (1804 -1892), a creationist. Richard Owen was one of the strongest scientific opponents of Darwinism during the age of Darwin. The term dinosaur means terrible lizard due to their size and assumed ferociousness. Paleontologists admit they know almost nothing “about the early evolution of these creatures, and in particular, the evolution of the dinosaurs before the [putative] saurishian-ornithischian split (C. Forster. 2000. “The First Dinosaurs” chapter 2 pp. 41-52 in R. Silverberg. editor, The Ultimate Dinosaur, New York, Simon and Schuster). Thus, new discoveries can revolutionize their conclusions, as occurred in this case. Taxonomy is not only used to determine evolutionary trees, but also to differentiate one species from another. The problem is the species concept is an imperfect and problematic method to classify life. As Cornell trained taxonomist Carol Yoon wrote, species classification was the “gray area of the field” and, more problematically “it was a moving target,” as this new dinosaur study shows (C. Yoon, 2009, Naming Nature: The Clash Between Instinct and Science. New York: Norton. pp. 104-105).last_img read more

Two Solar Decathlon Homes Get High Marks for Affordability

first_imgThe newest of the 2011 Solar Decathlon’s 10 contest categories – affordability – has become an impressive showcase for design ingenuity, and powerful evidence that building energy-efficient homes doesn’t have to bust the bank.The rules are simple: homes that cost $250,000 or less to build earn the contest category maximum of 100 points, while homes costing more than $250,000 lose points on a sliding scale that tapers to zero at the contest limit of $600,000.On Tuesday, two Decathlon entries – Parsons The New School of Design and Stevens Institute of Technology’s Empowerhouse and Purdue University’s INhome – took first-place honors with scores of 100 points each.The low and high endsThe estimated cost of Empowerhouse, which is designed as low-cost housing for Washington, DC’s Deanwood community, is $229,890. INhome, featuring a traditional Midwestern design, landed at $249,596, while the contest’s second-place finisher, Team Belgium’s E-Cube, took 99.885 points based on an estimated cost of $251,147.In third place, Southern California Institute of Architecture and California Institute of Technology’s CHIP house scored 98.750 points based on an estimated cost of $262,495.The low score for affordability, 46.593 points, went to University of Tennessee’s Living Light, whose estimated cost is $470,574. At 750 sq. ft., Living Light is, paradoxically, one of the smallest entries in the Decathlon, which set the size limit on interior space at 1,000 sq. ft. But the steel-frame building also features unconventional construction, including layered glazing on its north and south exterior walls: an outside single fixed pane of tempered R-1 glass sits on shock-absorbing mounts; on the inside, R-11.4 triple-pane windows, some of which are operable, sit in wood-veneered aluminum frames. Transparent glass dominates the south façade while translucent glass dominates the north façade, although the operable-window areas on each will be about the same.A juried categoryA Department of Energy press release noted that two jurors spent nine months evaluating each entry to come up with cost estimates and affordability scores: Matt Hansen, founder of Takeoffs Construction Estimating and partner at Licata Hansen Associates Architecture, and architect Ric Licata, a fellow and current western regional director of the American Institute of Architects.“Purdue’s use of a traditional design and construction approach demonstrated high tech energy and control systems for a sophisticated yet conventional market,” Hansen said of INhouse. “The general public would not perceive it as a solar home.” (Click here for a summary of cost estimates.)Architecture and home entertainmentWhile Tennessee may not have been competitive on price, it came in fifth in the architecture contest (another juried category), scoring 92 out of 100 points. The architecture contest winner, University of Maryland’s 920-sq.-ft. WaterShed house, also was, as of 11 a.m. September 29, the overall Decathlon leader. (Click here for a summary of overall standings.)Of the six contests whose results have been announced so far, WaterShed has managed to place among the top five in all but the home entertainment category, which Middlebury College’s Self-Reliance house won with a score of 80.269 out of 100.last_img read more

Here’s What Can Happen In An Internet Minute [Infographic]

first_imgWhy Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… [Update: The infographic referenced was produced in 2012, not 2013, and the article has been updated to reflect that.]Images courtesy of Intel. Related Posts A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting brian proffitt If you were to guess how many people logged in to Facebook in a single minute, what would you say? 10,000? 100,000? According to a new infographic posted by Intel, it’s a staggering 277,000 logins every minute, even as six million Facebook pages are getting viewed in that same period.The scale of the Internet is something that most of us have trouble understanding, because the numbers are so staggeringly big. That’s why infographics like the one Intel put together last year are so helpful — by breaking down the Internet into what happens in one minute, the numbers are at least a little more manageable.(See also: Peta, Exa, Yotta And Beyond: Big Data Reaches Cosmic Proportions [Infographic])And it will do nothing but grow. By 2015, Intel estimates, the number of Internet connections will double that of the world’s population.Get out the popcorn and take a look at the infographic for more figures that will stretch your perception of what can happen in a single minute. (Click the image for a full-size version.) 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#Intel#Internet last_img read more

No stopping Rockets as they roll to 17th straight victory

first_imgTyphoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH LOOK: Iya Villania meets ‘Jumanji: The Next Level’ cast in Mexico And yet the Rockets still led by 10 for most of the fourth quarter until a late surge by the Bucks sliced the lead to 104-99 with 1:06 left on rookie Sterling Brown’s layup.Chris Paul answered with a short floater in the lane with 45 seconds left after driving on Jason Terry to silence Bucks fans who were pleading “Defense! Defense!”Houston obliged after forcing the Bucks to waste 15 seconds on the ensuing inbounds pass and settle for an off-balance 3 that missed. The Rockets led comfortably from there.“There were a few 50-50 balls or offensive rebounds that we needed to secure that if we do, it gives us an opportunity to run,” Bucks coach Joe Prunty said. “If we run, then maybe we can put them on their heels … but the ball needs to move.”Giannis Antetokounmpo scored 30 points. Khris Middleton finished with 18 points for Milwaukee, while Brown had a career-high 15.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. The Bucks went stretches with the 6-foot-11 Antetokounmpo playing center to try to put a quicker lineup on the floor to counter the Rockets. Houston still ended up hitting 47 percent from the floor and 35 percent (14 of 40) from 3-point range, and held a 22-14 edge in fast-break points.QUOTABLE“It’s a little carelessness. We played two teams that create a lot of turnovers. A little bit of them and a little bit of us.” — D’Antoni on his team’s seven first-quarter turnovers.UP NEXTRockets: Makes third stop on four-game trip with a visit to the Toronto Raptors on Friday.Bucks: Try to improve to 3-0 this season over New York when the Knicks visit Friday. Read Next Typhoon ‘Tisoy’ threatens Games Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC LATEST STORIES Families in US enclave in north Mexico hold sad Thanksgiving Google honors food scientist, banana ketchup inventor and war hero Maria Orosacenter_img Paul had 16 points and 11 assists for the Rockets, who answered every Bucks charge.Milwaukee used an 11-0 run to get to within 73-69 with 3:25 left on Brown’s corner 3. The Bucks did most of their damage during the spurt around the bucket, with Antetokounmpo leading the way in the post.The NBA’s most prolific 3-point shooting team countered with another display of clutch perimeter shooting.The Rockets would beat the Bucks down the floor to set up open shots on the wing. Gordon knocked down two 3s, and P.J. Tucker added another 3 to help Houston close the third with a 14-7 run for an 87-76 lead.“With a win streak like this you are doing a lot of things the right way,” Gordon said. “We still play for each other. We knew this was going to be a tough road trip.”Houston got off to a sloppy start at the Bradley Center with a seven-turnover first quarter, a night after tying its season high with 22 turnovers in the 10-point win at Oklahoma City.The end of the first half offered a glimpse of what was still to come. Harden hit a deep 3 just before the halftime buzzer from well beyond the arc with a defender in his face for a 58-46 lead.“We’ve just got to stick with the game plan, close out, run them off the (3-point) line,” Brown said.TIP INSRockets: Swingman Joe Johnson missed a second straight game due to illness, while coach Mike D’Antoni rested Nene a day after the center played 17 minutes.Bucks: C Tyler Zeller (back) missed a second straight game. … It does not appear as if Matthew Dellavedova (right ankle) will return soon. The team initially estimated that the guard might miss a month when he got hurt on Feb. 4 at Brooklyn. The Bucks are also still without G Malcolm Brogdon (left quad).GIANNIS IN THE MIDDLE View comments MOST READ Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university PLAY LIST 01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City Houston Rockets’ James Harden reacts during the second half of an NBA basketball game against the Milwaukee Bucks Wednesday, March 7, 2018, in Milwaukee. (AP Photo/Morry Gash)MILWAUKEE — The Houston Rockets had trouble at times holding on to the ball and keeping up with the young Milwaukee Bucks.But as long as the Rockets keep hitting their 3-pointers, they’re pretty hard to beat.ADVERTISEMENT James Harden scored 26 points, Eric Gordon had 18 points and two momentum-swinging 3s in the third quarter, and Houston beat Milwaukee 110-99 on Wednesday night for its 17th straight win.The Rockets passed the Boston Celtics for the longest winning streak in the NBA this season. Houston hasn’t lost since Jan. 26 at New Orleans.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“We find ways to win,” Harden said. “It’s not going to be the same way every game.”The latest victory came on the second of a tough back-to-back stretch of road games that started with a 10-point victory at Oklahoma City. No wonder the Rockets looked sluggish at times against the Bucks. Lopez, LA Lakers hold off Magic in bizarre ending John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Pussycat Dolls set for reunion tour after 10-year hiatuslast_img read more