Modeling the properties of plasmaspheric hiss: 1. Dependence on chorus wave emission

first_imgThere is increasing evidence that plasmaspheric hiss is formed by the evolution of a portion of chorus waves that are excited in the plasmatrough and propagate into the plasmasphere. Comparison between the statistical spatial distributions of these two emissions in the morning sector during active times from THEMIS over ∼3 years shows that the two emissions have comparable peak intensities but are distinct in their spatial distributions. We present a modeling study of the hiss spectrum, based on ray tracing, by taking the observed chorus source region as an input in the magnetosphere, which contains cold and suprathermal electrons. Our modeling results show that we are able to reproduce the main features of typical hiss, including the frequency spectrum, wave normal angle and spatial distribution. However, the simulated hiss intensity is weaker (∼15 dB less) than the observed intensity, which suggests some modest internal amplification inside the plasmasphere. The responses of hiss to variations in the spatial distribution, wave normal angle distribution and frequency distribution of the source chorus are examined. We find that the majority of hiss formation is due to a small portion of chorus emission originating within ∼3 RE from the plasmapause, with wave normal directions pointing toward the Earth at an angle of 30°–60°, and over a frequency range of 0.1–0.3 fce. If the chorus power is made to increase closer to the plasmapause, the hiss intensity and the peak frequency also increases, which roughly mimics active geomagnetic conditions. Variations of the chorus source distribution do not significantly affect the wave normal angle distribution and frequency distribution of hiss, but does impact the absolute intensity of the resulting hiss.last_img read more

Nick Clegg condemns Campsfield expansion plans

first_imgDEPUTY PRIME MINISTER Nick Clegg has spoken out against the expansion of Campsfield House Immigration detention Centre, arguing that there is not a “clear case” for the proposals.Clegg declared, “The Home Office needs to improve the speed and accuracy of immigration and asylum decisions. This will reduce demand, help save money, and mean we can eventually close centres such as Campsfield House.”The prospective Liberal Democrat parliamentary candidate for Oxford West and Abingdon, Layla Moran, supported his remarks. She said, “I am delighted the Deputy Prime Minister has backed our calls. The ‘needs case’ for this expansion is now even less convincing.”His decision to speak out against existing plans contrasts with Prime Minister David Cameron’s response to an open letter from 21 local organizations in December, which called for the withdrawal of plans to expand the detentioncentre.  In the reply, the Head of Detention Operations at the Home Office, Karen Abdel-Hady, confirmed that a planning application had been submitted and that if approved, would “provide modern accommodation and facilities” and “meet the strategic objectives of immigration enforcement”.Abdel-Hady’s response went on to defend the Immigration Removal Centre, arguing, “Detention and removal are essential and effective parts of immigration control but it’s vital it’s done with humanity and dignity.”Having previously expressed her disappointment at the response from the Home office, an Oxford researcher working on deportation and immigration detention was this time “extremely pleased” with the Deputy Prime Minister’s decision to speak out against proposals to double the size of Campsfield.Dr. Melanie Griffiths told Cherwell, “The UK is unique in Europe for having no maximum time limit for immigration detention, meaning that people have no idea how long they might be detained for, with many incarcerated for months or even years. It is also an extremely costly process, at £36,000 per detainee per year, and causes immense damage to individuals and their families.’’ “Given all this, rather than seek to expand detention space yet further, we should be looking into cheaper and more civilised means of operating an immigration system. I welcome Clegg’s recognition that we should call for the end of this cruel practice.”She went on to say, “Depriving a person of their liberty simply for administrative inconvenience is abhorrent.”Oxford University’s Amnesty International was equally keen to back Clegg’s comments, with their President commenting, “We are pleased that the Deputy PM has condemned the expansion plans and hope this representsa growing trend.”“UK law and the Home Office’s own policy guidance clearly state that detention should be used sparingly and for the shortest period necessary. Yet these recent rapid expansions suggest that rather than ‘sparingly’, detention is being increasingly relied upon to warehouse migrants simply for administrative reasons, a proportion of whom will never be removedfrom the UK.”Dr. Griffiths was keen to encourage people to express their views on the issue using the Detention Forum website.A statement prepared by OUSU’s Student Executive Officers about the expansion plans declares, “Campsfield House should not be expanded: it should be closed down. Detainees at Campsfield report frequent abuse – just last month the detainees themselves staged a protest against the violent treatment of one of their number – and are systematically denied their basic rights. That Campsfield is run for profit by a private company is also troubling.“Migrants are not criminals. Many of the detainees in Campsfield faced persecution in their countries of origin and came to Britain needing our help. As a country, we are under an obligation not to mistreat them. Sadly, our immigration policy remains inhumane, and places like Campsfield are testament to that.“That is why it is the position of OUSU to oppose Campsfield House, and therefore we deplore plans for its expansion. We are glad that many Oxford students and academics – including nine heads of colleges – agree with us on this issue, and we will continue to lobby the government to close Campsfield.”The planning application for the extension to Campsfield has been deferred to the Cherwell District Council planning committee meeting on February 19th because the applicants ‘need more time to resolve the highways issue’.Neither the offices of David Cameron nor the Liberal Democrat party responded to requests for comment.last_img read more

Vermont shows increase in home prices

first_imgVermont ranks fifth in the nation home price increase from June to May. CoreLogic (NYSE: CLGX), a leading provider of information, analytics and business services, today released its June Home Price Index (HPI) which shows that home prices in the U.S. increased by 0.7 percent in June 2011 compared to May 2011, the third consecutive month-over-month increase.  According to CoreLogic, national home prices, including distressed sales, declined by 6.8 percent in June 2011 compared to June 2010 after declining by 6.7 percent* in May 2011 compared to May 2010. Excluding distressed sales, year-over-year prices declined by 1.1 percent in June 2011 compared to June 2010 and by 2.1* percent in May 2011 compared to May 2010.  Distressed sales include short sales and real estate owned (REO) transactions. “While there is a consistent and sustained seasonal improvement in prices over the last three months, prices are lower than a year ago due to the decline in prices after the expiration of the tax credit last year. The difference between the overall HPI and our index excluding distressed sales indicates that the price declines are more concentrated in the distressed sales market,” said Mark Fleming, chief economist for CoreLogic.Highlights as of June 2011Including distressed sales, the five states with the highest appreciation were:  New York (+3.3 percent), the District of Columbia (+2.4 percent),North Dakota (+1.2 percent), Alaska (+0.1 percent) and Nebraska (+0.1 percent).Including distressed sales, the five states with the greatest depreciation were: Nevada (-12.4 percent), Idaho (-12.3 percent), Arizona (-12.3 percent), Illinois (-12.2 percent) and Minnesota (-9.6 percent).Excluding distressed sales, the five states with the highest appreciation were: North Dakota (+5.9 percent),New York (+4.6 percent),West Virginia (+3.6 percent), Texas (+2.8 percent) and Vermont(+2.6 percent).Excluding distressed sales, the five states with the greatest depreciation were: Nevada (-9.9 percent), Arizona (-8.0 percent), Mississippi (-7.3 percent), Minnesota (-6.8 percent) and Delaware(-6.7 percent).Including distressed transactions, the peak-to-current change in the national HPI (from April 2006to June 2011) was -31.7 percent.  Excluding distressed transactions, the peak-to-current change in the HPI for the same period was -21.4 percent.  Of the top 100 Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) measured by population, 86 are showing year-over-year declines in June, five less than May.  Full-month June 2011 national, state-level and top CBSA-level data can be found athttp://www.corelogic.com/About-Us/ResearchTrends/Home-Price-Index.aspx(link is external)*May data was revised.  Revisions with public records data are standard, and to ensure accuracy, CoreLogic incorporates the newly released public data to provide updated results.  MethodologyThe CoreLogic HPI incorporates more than 30 years worth of repeat sales transactions, representing more than 65 million observations sourced from CoreLogic industry-leading property information and its securities and servicing databases. The CoreLogic HPI provides a multi-tier market evaluation based on price, time between sales, property type, loan type (conforming vs. nonconforming), and distressed sales. The CoreLogic HPI is a repeat-sales index that tracks increases and decreases in sales prices for the same homes over time, which provides a more accurate “constant-quality” view of pricing trends than basing analysis on all home sales. The CoreLogic HPI provides the most comprehensive set of monthly home price indices and median sales prices available covering 6,534 ZIP codes (59 percent of total U.S. population), 608 Core Based Statistical Areas (86 percent of total U.S. population) and 1,129 counties (84 percent of total U.S. population) located in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.  About CoreLogicCoreLogic (NYSE: CLGX) is a leading provider of consumer, financial and property information, analytics and services to business and government. The company combines public, contributory and proprietary data to develop predictive decision analytics and provide business services that bring dynamic insight and transparency to the markets it serves. CoreLogic has built the largest and most comprehensive U.S. real estate, mortgage application, fraud, and loan performance databases and is a recognized leading provider of mortgage and automotive credit reporting, property tax, valuation, flood determination, and geospatial analytics and services. More than one million users rely on CoreLogic to assess risk, support underwriting, investment and marketing decisions, prevent fraud, and improve business performance in their daily operations. The company, headquartered in Santa Ana, Calif., has more than 10,000 employees globally with 2010 revenues of $1.6 billion. For more information visit www.corelogic.com(link is external). Source:  CoreLogic SANTA ANA, Calif., Aug. 3, 2011 /PRNewswire/ —last_img read more

Carnival And Christianity – No Longer In Conflict

first_img Share 16 Views   no discussions Share NewsRegional Carnival And Christianity – No Longer In Conflict by: – April 14, 2012 Tweetcenter_img Sharing is caring! Share Masqueraders dance their way across the stage in Trinidad and Tobago during carnival celebration.THERE HAS always been an ambiguity in the responses of Trinidadians to carnival.Carnival has two ‘pulls’ on the heartstrings of the Trinidadian. It is an expression of their cultural arts that defies comparison. In carnival, all at once, one saw the best of Trinidadian creative genius.On the streets were the fabulous costumed creations, the ‘mobile street art’, the street theatre of the carnival bands, some of which has its origins in African ‘masking’.In the calypso tents one heard the passion and pain, the humour, the inventiveness of the calypso – an art form evolved through the need of the poor and downtrodden to express their soul, their wit and their amazing ability to survive and remain whole.One also heard, in the pan yards of the ghettos and rural peasant lands the amazing sound of that musical wonder of the world called the steel band. These bands were made up of instruments forged out of the waste material of the cold industrial world that had come to Trinidad because oil had been discovered there, tuned and crafted to eventually emit some truly marvellous sounds.Part of that ‘pull’ is also a deep understanding that carnival has evolved from a history of resistance, an insistence on humanness, on wholeness through systems of survival employed by the slaves and ex-slaves. In the music of the tamboo-bamboo and the subsequent steel bands were the ancient rhythms and melodies of their African ancestors; rhythms and melodies that harked back to their homeland and gave them sustenance during the dehumanising experience of slavery and colonialism, and helped to keep them whole and human. It fostered the ‘in your face’ declaration to the world that “we are alive – see we yah!”It is true that, over the past few decades much of carnival has been sold out to rampant capitalism and to the desire for quick gratification in the baring of flesh in skimpy costumes. Mark you, sexuality and sensuousness is an integral part of some aspects of carnival – as is so much of what is seen as black culture. But carnival is now marketed so much as pure ‘wine and jump’ and nothing else that the younger generation in Trinidad seems to have started to believe that and the older artistes of the carnival, like Peter Minshall, have begun to despair.But the spirit of carnival is still alive and well.And this is another part of the ‘problem’. The source of the other ‘pull’ on our heartstrings.Trinidad carnival has, from its birth, been fuelled by the spirits of the Orisha. The belief in the power of the African deities to sustain them through all hardship lurks somewhere in the souls of those who give the carnival movement its energy. This has been a conflict in the minds of the people of this highly religious country.The problem lay in the fact that those who Christianised us taught us to reject anything that was connected to ancestral African religion as ‘devil worship’ and to be rejected.Negative expressionSo there was this ambiguity. How were we, as black people, to respond negatively to this expression of all that has sustained us through our darkest times? But then, how were we, as Christians, to embrace that which we knew had its roots in African tribalism and ‘devil worship’?Eventually, we grew to accept the idea that Orisha was just a religion which some of us no longer accepted, and carnival was not, in itself, sinful.So, by the turn of the century, attitudes had changed to the point where David Rudder could have a hit calypso called High Mas in which he prayed to the father who had “given us this art” and who knew “the pain we’re feeling”, in his mercy, to “Send a little music, to make the vibration raise”.This would have been unheard of 50 years ago.But Rudder, like most thinking people, also realises the excesses that take place at carnival time and the abuse of the spirit of the thing. This is why, in his calypso, he admits that ” in this bacchanal season some men will lose their reason”, and asks God to “Forgive us, this day, our daily weaknesses”.Jamaica Gleanerlast_img read more

Woman killed by tractor at Clear Lake State Park Tuesday afternoon

first_imgCLEAR LAKE — A Wisconsin woman is dead after being struck and killed by a tractor at Clear Lake State Park on Tuesday afternoon. The Cerro Gordo County Sheriff’s Department says they responded to a medical call at State Park Beach at about 4:15 PM. An unattended tractor owned by the State of Iowa rolled down a hill towards the beach area and struck a female sitting near the beach. The woman, identified as 21-year-old Mercedes Kohlhardt of Eau Claire Wisconsin, was pronounced dead at the scene due to injuries sustained from the accident. The Sheriff’s Department says the incident remains under investigation.last_img