KamaGames posts record revenue in Q1

first_img8th April 2020 | By contenteditor Casino & games Topics: Casino & games Finance Social gaming AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter KamaGames posts record revenue in Q1 Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Social gaming operator KamaGames has announced that gross revenue reached a record $29.3m (£23.7m/€27.0m) in the first quarter of the year. Social gaming operator KamaGames has announced that gross revenue reached a record $29.3m (£23.7m/€27.0m) in the first quarter of the year.Revenue during the three months to 31 March was up by 37% on a year-on-year basis, representing a new quarterly high for the business. The operator put this primarily down to a number of features, games and improved monetisation mechanics rolled out in 2019.KamaGames also set a new record in terms of the number of unique paying users engaging with its titles, with this rising between 20% and 30% for each month of the quarter.The operator also issued an update in regards to the impact of the global novel coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis, saying its performance had not been adversely affected by the outbreak.In fact, KamaGames said the number of new users in countries where quarantine had been enforced increased by 30% in Q1, with revenue in these markets also demonstrating growth towards the end of March. However, the operator said this growth did not have a significant effect on its overall results for the quarter.Looking to the second quarter, KamaGames said that it would continue to update its social casino games portfolio in support ongoing growth. This will include the introduction of new features targeted at engaging players worldwide.Towards the end of the first quarter, KamaGames announced that it had linked up with Hard Rock International to launch a new social casino mobile app. Hard Rock Blackjack features a range of free-to-play casino games from KamaGames’ portfolio, including roulette, craps, baccarat, blackjack and slots.Record results in the first quarter follow on from an impressive performance by the operator in 2019, during which it experienced its fourth consecutive year of growth. Revenue grew 18.3% year-on-year to $90.4m in the 12 months to 31 December 2019. Email Addresslast_img read more

Norsk Tipping: At-risk play dropped under lockdown

first_imgIn the second phase, towards July, data showed that as things started to go back to normal, gaming patterns began to move back to levels seen before lockdown. Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Given the lack of sports betting available, the majority of bettors disappeared completely during this phase. Regions: Norway Norwegian gambling monopoly Norsk Tipping said the suspension of certain forms of gambling during the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic led to a drop in risky behaviour among players, though things quickly returned to normal as games came back online. When sports betting returned, so too did the players, and betting patterns returned to their pre-lockdown level. There was an increase in the number of ‘red’ players at this time, when both the Norwegian Elite Series and the Premier League were taking place concurrently. This has since reduced. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter Overall, it was clear that lotteries still dominated the gaming market. In March, turnover increased in line with a usual annual spike around Easter, where more promotions and draws are offered. In addition, a larger-than-usual jackpot drew in many more players than in regular months. While the period of lockdown saw an initial reduction in the total number of ‘red’ players, the level has now returned to the same as pre-lockdown. This does not necessarily mean that individuals or subgroups of players have experienced increased risk-taking during the period. As sports betting players lost the opportunity to bet on major sporting events almost overnight, after leagues and competitions were suspended due to Covid-19, the majority of bettors stopped playing completely during the period. Norsk Tipping stated it did not want to actively encourage sports bettors to take up other games considered to be high-risk, such as casino. Betting on esports and Belarusian football did not appeal to those who usually bet on football and hockey, and while some sports bettors who also have an interest in casino did migrate, many simply disappeared completely from gaming while sports were on hold. Tags: Norsk Tipping Many of those customers play across verticals, however a small group only plays on the physical terminals. While Norsk was interested to see if those players eventually migrated instead to online slot offerings, they only did so after some three months had passed. 13th November 2020 | By Conor Mulheir The report was split into two phases, from March to May and May to July, and used Norsk Tipping’s classification of player patterns, from green (low risk) and yellow (medium risk) to red (high risk). Multix and Belago players were approaching pre-lockdown levels of play, despite social distancing requirements meaning not all machines were in use. After lockdown began in Norway in response to the pandemic, the operator suspected that those players who were already vulnerable would be at significantly greater risk at a time of such change and insecurity. Norsk Tipping considers the dominance of lottery to be a positive; they want customers to choose such lower-risk games as opposed to the higher-risk options of sports betting and casino. Topics: Casino & games Sports betting State monopoly Responsible gambling Online casino also saw an increase in the number of ‘red’ players in July, which again has since declined. A greater availability of disposable income was seen as a potential cause of this, which is consistent with feedback received from players. The land-based sector suffered long closures, namely Norsk’s Multix and Belago gaming terminals, which are the product of choice for one of the operator’s most dedicated customer groups. Norsk Tipping: At-risk play dropped under lockdown Online bingo saw no change during the first phase, accompanied by a small increase in the use of digital scratch cards and online casino. There was an uptake in the number of players on these verticals, however it was not considered much more than the steady growth of online casino in recent years. The increase certainly did not compensate for the loss of players on sports betting and land-based slot machines. In phase one (March-May), the first change to risk level observed was that the level of risk-taking dropped significantly. This is partly due to the closure of Multix and Belago gaming terminals, as many players of these are considered to be in the ‘red’, high-risk category. Responsible gambling Email Addresslast_img read more

IND vs AUS T20I Series Live Streaming Online: Where to watch…

first_imgCricketIndia tour of Australia 2020-21SportSport News Freight & Shipping Quotes | Search AdsResearch & Compare Freight & Shipping QuotesEnjoy Affordable Freight & Shipping Services With These Service ProvidersFreight & Shipping Quotes | Search Ads|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDaily FunnyFemale Athlete Fails You Can’t Look Away FromDaily Funny|SponsoredSponsoredUndoPost FunThese Twins Were Named “Most Beautiful In The World,” Wait Until You See Them TodayPost Fun|SponsoredSponsoredUndoYourBump15 Actors That Hollywood Banned For LifeYourBump|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDefinitionTime Was Not Kind To These 28 CelebritiesDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredUndoMoneyPailShe Was A Star, Now She Works In ScottsdaleNow she has a normal job.MoneyPail|SponsoredSponsoredUndo By Kunal Dhyani – December 8, 2020 by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeGrammarlyAdvertisement Avoid Grammatical Errors with This Helpful Browser ExtensionGrammarlyUndoMicrosoftBring your desktop to life with Bing WallpaperMicrosoftUndoPhotoStickHow To Back Up All Your Old Photos In SecondsPhotoStickUndoNext up, India faces Australia in the first of the three-T20 match series. The first match will be held in the Oval Ground, Canberra.After winning the last ODI by 13 runs, Kohli’s men will look to continue their fine form in the T20 matches as well.How can fans watch India vs Australia 1st T20?How can fans watch India vs Australia T20I Series?In 2017-18 Cricket Australia had signed a 6 years deal for all Live Broadcast and Live Streaming of the cricket played in Australia with Sony Pictures Sports Network. The deal will allow Sony to exclusively Live Stream the series on SonyLIV.Cricket fans in the Indian Sub-Continent will have to subscribe to SonyLIV to enjoy the uninterrupted Live Streaming of the India vs Australia series on SonyLiv.com.Which Sony Channels will broadcast IND vs AUS T20I Series live matches?The SPN has shortlisted three sports channels to broadcast India vs Australia T20I series live, namely, Sony SIX, Sony TEN 1, and Sony TEN 3.How to watch India vs Australia T20I Series live streaming online in India?Sony LIV will live stream IND vs AUS T20I Series live from Australia.How can fans watch the IND vs AUS T20I Series live broadcast for free?India’s national sports broadcaster, DD Sports will live telecast India vs Australia T20Is for free. DD National will also broadcast the IND vs AUS T20I Series live starting Dec 4How can fans watch the free-live streaming of the India vs Australia T20I Series?Airtel postpaid and Jio subscribers can watch the IND vs AUS T20I Series live on Airtel Stream and Jio TV platforms, respectively.India vs Australia T20I Series Full ScheduleFirst T20: December 4, Manuka Oval, 1:40 PM ISTSecond T20: December 6, SCG, 1:40 PM ISTThird T20: December 8, SCG, 1:40 PM IST Football Formula 1 ATP Tour Previous articleInd vs Aus 3rd T20: Virat Kohli’s Team India on course to break biggest record in T20INext articleInd vs Aus 3rd T20 Live : Sony Sports to Live broadcast India’s pursuit to clean sweep of T20 series, Watch it Live at 1.40 Kunal DhyaniSports Tech enthusiast, he reports on Sports Tech industry and writes on sports products. WI vs SA 2nd Test Day 3 Live: Start delayed due to wet outfield, SA lead by 149 runs – Follow Live Updates Euro 2020, Italy vs Wales: 3 key battles to watch out for in ITA vs WAL RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Euro 2020, Switzerland vs Turkey LIVE: Switzerland to punish hapless Turkey; Follow Live Updates Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Cricket Football Euro 2020 LIVE broadcast in more than 200 countries, check how you can watch Live Streaming of EURO 2020 in your country Euro 2020, Italy vs Wales LIVE: Gareth Bale and Co face do-or-die clash; Italy eye third consecutive win; Follow Live Updates, TAGSIND vs AUS T20I Series live broadcast for freeIND vs AUS T20I Series live matchesIND vs AUS T20I Series Live Streaming OnlineIndia vs Australia T20I Series LIVEWhere to watch India vs Australia T20I Series Live in India SHARE Football Football IND vs AUS T20I Series Live Streaming Online: Where to watch India vs Australia T20I Series Live in IndiaThree ODIs have been done and dusted in the India Tour of Australia. While Australia won the first two, India won the last ODI after making 4 changes to prevent a clean sweep. IND vs AUS T20I Series Live Streaming Online: Where to watch India vs Australia T20I Series Live in India Cricket Facebook Twitter Football BCCI to form committee to take call on compensating domestic cricketers Queens Club Final: Matteo Berrettini beats Cameron Norrie in final to win title Cricket WTC Final Day 3 LIVE Score: Latham, Conway resumes NZ innings after Tea break; NZ 36/0 (21 ovs)- Follow Live Updates F1 French GP 2021: Max Verstappen pips Lewis Hamilton to win French GP, Perez finishes 3rd Euro 2020, Switzerland vs Turkey: Top 5 players to watch out for in SUI vs TUR last_img read more

County Council announces commercial rate freeze

first_imgWhatsApp Print Linkedin Facebook NewsLocal NewsCounty Council announces commercial rate freezeBy admin – December 15, 2008 538 Businesses in County Limerick were buoyed by the news today that Limerick County Council will not be increasing the commercial rate for a second year in a row. Announcing details of the Council’s Budget for 2009, the Limerick County Manager confirmed that the commercial rate for 2009 would remain at the 2007 level.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up Mr. Ned Gleeson said that the decision would play an important role in sustaining existing jobs, and ensuring that Limerick remained an attractive location for investment.Mr. Gleeson continued, “Faced with the most challenging economic climate in a decade, extremely difficult decisions had to be made. In making these difficult choices I have been guided by a number of factors including the need to maintain essential services, statutory obligations that the Council must meet, direction from Government with regard to pay and non-pay items, and the need for the Council to give a lead in protecting employment and measures to enhance the Council’s economic performance.”He pointed out that the current Annual Rate on Valuation is one of the lowest of the thirty-four County and City Authorities in the country, as well as being the lowest in the Mid West Region.The total estimated expenditure included in the Draft Budget for 2009 amounts to €125.892 million.  This level of expenditure will be financed from Grants and Subsidies (30.85%), Goods and Services (27.57%),Commercial Rates (21.17%) and Local Government Fund Grant (20.41%).Commenting on the Budget, Councillor John Gallahue, Cathaoirleach of Limerick County Council said it was a very significant achievement to be freezing rates for a second consecutive year, and the property tax rate for the County was similar to 2007.center_img Twitter Email Previous article315 New Jobs for Mid-West RegionNext articleWork to begin on the great southern trail admin Advertisementlast_img read more

Internationally acclaimed singer to perform in Abbeyfeale

first_imgLinkedin Twitter NewsCommunityInternationally acclaimed singer to perform in AbbeyfealeBy Staff Reporter – February 5, 2018 1344 RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Facebook Advertisement WhatsApp Previous articleHoran case a wake-up call for parentsNext articleMunster secure golfing victory in Vilamoura Staff Reporterhttp://www.limerickpost.ie TAGSChurch of Assumption AbbeyfealeFinba WrightFr Tony MullinsGolden Jubilee Print Finbar WrightA year of celebration for the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Church of Assumption Abbeyfeale will have a special curtain raiser this Friday when one of Ireland’s favourite signers, the internationally acclaimed Finbar Wright, stars.The classically trained Cork tenor will bring his uplifting repertoire to anticipated packed Church of the Assumption to start Golden Jubilee celebrations on a high. Having already performed in Abbeyfeale in 2008, it will be a popular return for a much loved artist.The entertainment value of the nigh will be raised by famed Uilleann Piper Ronan Browne, who will join Wright in what’s going to be a very special performance. The concert is the first in a series of events that across 2018 to mark the Jubilee of the opening of the church in Abbeyfeale.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up But it all starts on Friday with what will be a really special night for Abbeyfeale. Said Parish Priest Fr. Tony Mullins: “A lot of work went into building this Church, a huge amount of effort by the community, people who are still with us and some who are gone so it’s only right that we would celebrate their endeavour 50 years on. ”Remaining tickets for the concert can be reserved by telephone at 089- 4356981 and are also available at outlets in Abbeyfeale, including Moss Harnett’s Spar shop, Killarney Road, Twohig’s Supervalue, O’Donoghue’s Spar shop, Ann Lyon’s, The Square and Sean Broderick’s New Street. Tickets are also on sale in Templeglantine at Pat Buckley’s shop and the Post Office and in Newcastle West at All Seasons Ladies Fashions, Bridge Street, Newcastle West.More about community here. Email Bishop’s funeral tribute to Limerick parish priestlast_img read more

Aldi submits updated planning application for new store on Roches St.,…

first_imgWhatsApp ALDI Ireland has submitted an updated planning application for its planned new store on Roches Street, Limerick to Limerick City and County Council. The new store will create 30 permanent jobs once opened, as well as 100 jobs during the construction phase.The new planning application provides for a number of proposed changes to the original plans for the store.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up The store will be constructed in Aldi’s award-winning Project Fresh design and will be powered by 100% green electricity. There will be 75 customer car parking spaces, with a mix of uses including an office on the first floor and the existing Eir surface car park relocated to the third floor.Aldi will also invest in the future of Limerick City through the provision of three free-to-use electric vehicle charging points outside the store.A study* of shoppers living or working within 2km of Aldi’s planned ‘Project Fresh’ store on Roches Street by leading independent market research agency Behaviour and Attitudes found overwhelming support for Aldi’s plans.87% of shoppers interviewed claimed they are happy to hear Aldi is planning to open a store in the area, with 89% stating they are likely to shop there.91% of shoppers surveyed in Limerick agreed Aldi had chosen a central convenient site on Roches Street, with 92% stating the opening of the store would generate much needed local employment. Nine out of ten (90%) believe the opening of Aldi will mean better value grocery shopping.Commenting, Colin Breslin, Aldi Regional Managing Director said: “We can’t wait to come to Limerick City Centre and bring our amazing prices to even more customers. The demand from shoppers in Limerick for the lowest prices in Irish retail is very clear.”“Our dedicated customers know that we won’t be beaten on price, and we are committed to providing the best value possible to shoppers. Our Swap & Save campaign reminds shoppers about the saving that can be generated by swapping their weekly shop to Aldi.”The new store will be Aldi’s fourth in County Limerick, with existing stores on Childers Road and Dublin Road in Limerick City, and a store in Newcastle West. Each store is part of Aldi’s food waste reduction programme, with Aldi’s Limerick stores having donated over 40,000 meals through FoodCloud to local charities.Each store is also part of Aldi’s Community Grants network, with The Butterfly Club, Barnardos Family Support Service Limerick South and the Irish Cancer Society some of the many local charities that have availed of the €500 bursary grant in recent years. Limerick Ladies National Football League opener to be streamed live TAGSaldiKeeping Limerick PostedlimerickLimerick Post Facebook Linkedin Twitter Limerick’s National Camogie League double header to be streamed live WATCH: “Everyone is fighting so hard to get on” – Pat Ryan on competitive camogie squads Emailcenter_img Donal Ryan names Limerick Ladies Football team for League opener Previous article#Photos: Redemptorists Hamper Appeal 2020Next article#Video: Fresh Film & Local Creative Youth Partnership produce music video for Limerick band Bleeding Heart Pigeons Meghann Scully RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Billy Lee names strong Limerick side to take on Wicklow in crucial Division 3 clash LimerickNewsAldi submits updated planning application for new store on Roches St., LimerickBy Meghann Scully – December 17, 2020 2996 Print Advertisement Roisin Upton excited by “hockey talent coming through” in Limericklast_img read more

Biden choice for budget chief faces new hurdles in Congress

first_img Twitter WhatsApp Biden choice for budget chief faces new hurdles in Congress Pinterest Local NewsBusinessUS News Facebook WhatsApp FILE – In this Feb. 10, 2021, file photo Neera Tanden, President Joe Biden’s nominee for Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), appears before a Senate Committee on the Budget hearing on Capitol Hill in Washington.center_img TAGS  Pinterest Previous articleHeavy Snow and Chilly Temps Increase Pest Pressure Across U.S.Next articleStudy: college sports still trail pros in diversity hiring Digital AIM Web Support By Digital AIM Web Support – April 6, 2021 Twitter Facebooklast_img read more

CFPB Updates on Dodd-Frank, Qualified Mortgage Patch

first_img CFPB Dodd-Frank Patch Qualified Mortgage Act 2019-05-29 Seth Welborn Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Share Save Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Sign up for DS News Daily Related Articles The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Home / Daily Dose / CFPB Updates on Dodd-Frank, Qualified Mortgage Patch The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Seth Welborn is a Reporter for DS News and MReport. A graduate of Harding University, he has covered numerous topics across the real estate and default servicing industries. Additionally, he has written B2B marketing copy for Dallas-based companies such as AT&T. An East Texas Native, he also works part-time as a photographer. Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days agocenter_img CFPB Updates on Dodd-Frank, Qualified Mortgage Patch in Daily Dose, Featured, Government, News Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Tagged with: CFPB Dodd-Frank Patch Qualified Mortgage Act  Print This Post May 29, 2019 2,596 Views Previous: Britain’s Barclays Returning to U.S. Mortgage-Backed Securities Market Next: Technology Coming to Loan Applications The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has released its Spring 2019 rulemaking agenda, part of the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions.Included in the Bureau’s rulemaking is a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to follow up on an interpretive and procedural rule that it issued in August 2018 to provide clarification regarding Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (EGRRCPA) amendments to the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). These created “partial exemptions that allow certain insured depository institutions and insured credit unions not to report certain data points for some transactions.”The Bureau also announced several new projects down the line. According to the CFPB, after completing an assessment in October 2018 of its rules to implement Dodd-Frank Act requirements for international remittance transfers:The Bureau issued in April 2019 a request for information to gather information related to the expiration of a statutorily established exception in the Remittance Rule that permits insured banks and insured credit unions to estimate certain required disclosures and other potential remittance transfer issues and related topics. The Bureau also recently completed an assessment of rules implementing Dodd-Frank Act provisions that require mortgage lenders to determine consumers’ ability to repay loans and define certain ‘qualified mortgages’ that are presumed to comply with the statutory requirements.As part of its plan, the CFPB notes that it will be focusing its attention on the Qualified Mortgage “Patch” on loans that are eligible to be purchased or guaranteed by either Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.In addition, the CFPB will be reviewing existing regulations, such as, “conducting an assessment pursuant to section 1022(d) of the Dodd-Frank Act of its regulations to consolidate various mortgage origination disclosures under the Truth in Lending Act and Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act.”In May 2019, the CFPB published its plan for conducting reviews consistent with section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and also “issued a request for information on the first such review, concerning the impact of certain regulations concerning overdraft services on small banks and credit unions.” Subscribe About Author: Seth Welborn Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days agolast_img read more

JGLS Legal Aid Clinic Secures Favorable Interim Order For EWS Student Who Was Allegedly Wrongly Denied Admission To Modern School, Delhi [Read Order]

first_imgNews UpdatesJGLS Legal Aid Clinic Secures Favorable Interim Order For EWS Student Who Was Allegedly Wrongly Denied Admission To Modern School, Delhi [Read Order] Akshita Saxena8 July 2020 2:05 AMShare This – xThe Delhi High Court recently directed the Modern School, Vasant Vihar, Delhi, to keep one seat vacant in Class 1 until the matter relating to alleged wrongful denial of seat to a EWS category student is decided finally. The order was passed by a single bench of Justice Jayant Nath after hearing the submissions made by Advocate Nipun Arora, engaged by the Right to Education Team of…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Delhi High Court recently directed the Modern School, Vasant Vihar, Delhi, to keep one seat vacant in Class 1 until the matter relating to alleged wrongful denial of seat to a EWS category student is decided finally. The order was passed by a single bench of Justice Jayant Nath after hearing the submissions made by Advocate Nipun Arora, engaged by the Right to Education Team of the Legal Aid Clinic of the Jindal Global Law School, Sonipat, on behalf of the EWS student. Section 12 (1) (c) of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act mandates reservation of a minimum of 25% of the seats at the entry level class for children belonging to economically weaker sections (EWS) and disadvantaged groups in all private unaided schools. The 6-yr-old EWS student was allegedly denied admission by the school on the ground that there is no vacancy of seats. The school further informed the parents of the child that admissions under the EWS quota are available only to nursery and pre-primary students. Stating that no action was taken by the Government authorities against such “illegal” stance taken by the school, the Legal Aid Clinic with the help of Advocate Arora approached the High Court seeking relief. They have submitted that after the admission applications were processed by the school, the Petitioner was allotted Modern School, Vasant Vihar, for enrolment in EWS category in the first standard under the RTE Act. “However, to the utter shock and dismay of the Petitioner, the Respondent No. 2 blatantly refused to honour the allotment in favour of the Petitioner. The officials of the Respondent No. 2 kept making 8 excuses and absolutely denied to perform their statutory duties under the RTE Act as well as violated the fundamental rights of the Petitioner,” the plea states. The Petitioner apprehends that the school is making frivolous excuses to avoid its duties and is in fact trying to allot the EWS seat to some other persons with wealthy background for undue pecuniary gain. The court has granted interim relief to the Petitioner and has issued notices to both, the Delhi Govt. as well as the Modern School, Vasant Vihar, returnable on July 23, 2020. The RTE cell of the Legal Aid Clinic has expressed their aspiration to further the cause of education and have said, “We wish to take this opportunity to reach out to parents and students who have been wronged by school authorities and government administration. Advocate Nipun Arora and Shruti Dahlan(Head, RTE Committee, Legal Aid Clinic) have worked closely on this matter and can be reached at [email protected] [email protected] any concerns, questions, queries or complaints.” Case Details: Case Title: Abdul Kalam (Minor) v. GNCT of Delhi & Anr. Case No.: WP(C) No. 3913/2020 Quorum: Justice Jayant Nath Appearance: Advocate Nipun Arora (for Petitioner); ASC Naushad Ahmed Khan (for State) Click Here To Download Order Click Here To Download Press Note Next Storylast_img read more

The Pandemic, Labour Rights, And The Supreme Court’s Judgment In Gujarat Mazdoor Sabha

first_imgColumnsThe Pandemic, Labour Rights, And The Supreme Court’s Judgment In Gujarat Mazdoor Sabha Gautam Bhatia3 Oct 2020 5:48 AMShare This – xOn 17 April 2020, a little under a month after the Covid-induced nation-wide lockdown had been imposed, the government of Gujarat issued a notification under Section 5 of the Factories Act. This notification exempted all the factories in the state of Gujarat from adhering to a set of workers’ rights guaranteed by the statute. Its effect was to increase the upper limit of working hours from…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginOn 17 April 2020, a little under a month after the Covid-induced nation-wide lockdown had been imposed, the government of Gujarat issued a notification under Section 5 of the Factories Act. This notification exempted all the factories in the state of Gujarat from adhering to a set of workers’ rights guaranteed by the statute. Its effect was to increase the upper limit of working hours from nine to twelve per day and forty-eight to seventy-two per week, shorten rest intervals, and halve overtime pay. The Notification was initially intended to run until 19 July, but was later extended to 19 October.Two trade unions challenged the Notifiction(s) before the Supreme Court. In an important judgment handed down today (Gujarat Mazdoor Sabha v State of Gujarat), a three-judge bench of the Court agreed with their arguments, and struck down the Notifications in their entirety (with a consequential direction to pay back-wages to those workers who had worked overtime on the reduced rates).Chandrachud J.’s judgment for the Court revolves around two axes, both of which are important from a constitutional perspective. The first is a statutory analysis of whether the pre-conditions under Section 5 were satisfied; and the second is a broader argument about the role of labour laws in a constitutional democracy.Section 5 of the Factories Act authorises the government to exempt any factory or class of factories from the provisions of the statute, in case of a “public emergency.” The Explanation to Section 5 defines “public emergency” as grave emergency that threatens the security of India (or any part of it) on account of war, external aggression, or internal disturbance. The State argued that the Covid-19 pandemic was “a public emergency”, caused by “internal disturbance”. Relying upon the Sarkaria Commission Report that had cited “epidemics” as examples of internal disturbances, the State therefore claimed that the manner in which Covid-19 had “disturbed the social order of the country” and caused “extreme financial exigencies”, justified the invocation of Section 5.The Court rejected this argument. It began by noting that in judicial review, the existence of a “public emergency” must be demonstrated as an “objective fact” (paragraph 8). Secondly, the Court held that a reading of the Section 5 made it clear that both expressions – “public emergency” and “internal disturbance” – were to be read conjunctively, and the presence of both had to be satisfied as a pre-condition to invoking the Section. The Court then examined the scope of each of the phrases. Noting the genesis of these terms in colonial-era legislation and Constitutional Emergency provisions, the Court held that the terms would have to be given a narrow meaning. As Chandrachud J. observed:Section 5 of the Factories Act authorises the government to exempt any factory or class of factories from the provisions of the statute, in case of a “public emergency.” The Explanation to Section 5 defines “public emergency” as grave emergency that threatens the security of India (or any part of it) on account of war, external aggression, or internal disturbance. The State argued that the Covid-19 pandemic was “a public emergency”, caused by “internal disturbance”. Relying upon the Sarkaria Commission Report that had cited “epidemics” as examples of internal disturbances, the State therefore claimed that the manner in which Covid-19 had “disturbed the social order of the country” and caused “extreme financial exigencies”, justified the invocation of Section 5.On this basis, the Court held that “mere financial exigencies … do not qualify as an internal disturbance.” (para 17) Indeed, given that the phrase “internal disturbance” was used alongside “war” and “external aggression”, the principle of noscitur a sociis required interpreting it in that context, and in situations of similar gravity (para 18).With respect to the phrase “public emergency”, the Court noted that its constituent phrase – a threat to the “security of India” – had been repeatedly interpreted in narrow terms by the Supreme Court, starting with the hoary old judgment of Romesh Thapar (para 20).Having traced the genesis and meaning of both terms, the Court then applied them to the case at hand:Even if we were to accept the Respondent’s argument at its highest, that the pandemic has resulted in an internal disturbance, we find that the economic slowdown created by the COVID-19 pandemic does not qualify as an internal disturbance threatening the security of the state. The pandemic has put a severe burden on existing, particularly public health, infrastructure and has led to a sharp decline in economic activities. The Union Government has taken recourse to the provisions of the Disaster Management Act, 2005.12 However, it has not affected the security of India, or of a part of its territory in a manner that disturbs the peace and integrity of the country. The economic hardships caused by COVID–19 certainly pose unprecedented challenges to governance. However, such challenges are to be resolved by the State Governments within the domain of their functioning under the law, in coordination with the Central Government. Unless the threshold of an economic hardship is so extreme that it leads to disruption of public order and threatens the security of India or of a part of its territory, recourse cannot be taken to such emergency powers which are to be used sparingly under the law. (para 28)This is an important paragraph. As noted on this blog before, terms such as “public emergency”, “security of the State”, and “internal disturbance” are broad in their ambit; if they are to act as any kind of check upon unbridled executive power, it requires the judiciary to give them concrete content, and then – given their extraordinary nature – to insist upon strict compliance with the legal threshold before the government can invoke emergency-style powers. This is what the Court did: instead of letting the nature of the Covid-19 pandemic expand to fill the content of these clauses, it first accorded these clauses an autonomous – and narrow – interpretation, and upon finding that the pandemic did not fall within that interpretation, struck down the offending State action. This is a refreshing change from the otherwise deferential attitude shown by the Court at the first recitation of “public emergency” and “national security”, including in many cases concerning State action during the pandemic.The Court also went on, however, to put its argument on a firmer – constitutional – footing. It located the Factories Act – and its guarantee of workers’ rights – in a long history of labour struggles (para 29), and grounded it within legislative recognition of the “inequality of bargaining power between workers and their employers” (para 30). Drawing upon the Directive Principles as interpretive guides, the Court noted that working hour guarantees and overtime payment had a constitutional foundation, as they came within the ambit of Articles 21 (right to life) and 23 (right against forced labour). Any restriction of those rights, therefore, would have to abide by the principle of proportionality. In the instant case, the Court found that the principle of proportionality had been violated:The impugned notifications do not serve any purpose, apart from reducing the overhead costs of all factories in the State, without regard to the nature of their manufactured products. It would be fathomable, and within the realm of reasonable possibility during a pandemic, if the factories producing medical equipment such as life-saving drugs, personal protective equipment or sanitisers, would be exempted by way of Section 65(2), while justly compensating the workers for supplying their valuable labour in a time of urgent need. However, a blanket notification of exemption to all factories, irrespective of the manufactured product, while denying overtime to the workers, is indicative of the intention to capitalize on the pandemic to force an already worn-down class of society, into the chains of servitude. (para 36)In other words, therefore, using the Directive Principles and the concept of a welfare-oriented democracy as an interpretive base, the Court (a) located the rights at issue within Articles 21 and 23, and (b) found that State action violating them failed to meet the test of proportionality.ConclusionThe judgment of the Supreme Court is important in two respects. First, it is an important pushback against the trend where the State’s invocation of “public emergency” and “national security” has marked both the beginning and the end of the argument in court. In Gujarat Mazdoor Sabha, the Court shows that simply by performing the normal judicial function – of interpreting phrases in accordance with their accepted meaning, and by measuring State action against that meaning – the government’s justifications will often fail on their own terms. More broadly, the Court’s insistence that the invocation of such clauses is for exceptional situations – and must therefore be adhered to strictly – is both welcome and important. This must be seen in the context of two competing judicial philosophies. The first philosophy holds that “public emergency” and “national security” constitute a kind of constitutional blackhole: their very invocation by the State requires the Court to virtually abandon its basic function of judicial review. The second philosophy holds that, as a matter of fact, it is precisely because of the sweeping powers afforded to the State in such circumstances, judicial review must be heightened, so that basic rights do not become (in the the words of the judgment) “paper tigers.” In recent times, we have seen far too much of the first philosophy, and far too little of the second – something that the Court corrects in this case.Secondly, the Court does not limit its arguments to the statutory framework. By using the Directive Principles as interpretive guides, it grounds core labour rights within Articles 21 and 23 of the Constitution, and subjects limitations to the doctrine of proportionality. This is equally important, because – as we have seen just recently – existing labour laws themselves have been replaced by new Labour Codes, which take a far more restrictive approach towards labour rights. The Court’s reminder that these rights are, ultimately, located in the Constitution, is therefore crucial as, in the coming days, questions will be raised about both the constitutionality – and the interpretation – of the new labour codes.Views are personal only.This article was first published here Next Storylast_img read more